Al-Qur'an Surah Al-Ahzab Verse 26
Al-Ahzab : 26 ~ English Qur'an Word By Word and Multi Tafseer
وَاَنْزَلَ الَّذِيْنَ ظَاهَرُوْهُمْ مِّنْ اَهْلِ الْكِتٰبِ مِنْ صَيَاصِيْهِمْ وَقَذَفَ فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ فَرِيْقًا تَقْتُلُوْنَ وَتَأْسِرُوْنَ فَرِيْقًاۚ (الأحزاب : ٣٣)
- And He brought down
- those who
- backed them
- (the) People
- (of) the Scripture
- their fortresses
- and cast
- their hearts
- [the] terror
- a group
- you killed
- and you took captive
- a group
Wa anzalal lazeena zaaha roohum min Ahlil Kitaabi min sa yaaseehim wa qazafa fee quloobihimm mur ru'ba freeqan taqtuloona wa taasiroona fareeqaaa(QS. al-ʾAḥzāb:26)
English / Sahih Translation:
And He brought down those who supported them among the People of the Scripture from their fortresses and cast terror into their hearts [so that] a party [i.e., their men] you killed, and you took captive a party [i.e., the women and children]. (QS. Al-Ahzab, ayah 26)
He has brought those of the people of the Book (the Jews) who had backed them, down from their fortresses, and cast awe into their hearts, so as to make you kill some of them and take others as captives;
And He brought down those from the People of the Book[[ The Jews of Banu Quraiẓah who had violated their treaty with the Muslims and sided with the enemy alliance. The Prophet (ﷺ) asked how they wished to be judged, and they chose to be judged by their book, the Torah—in which the penalty for treason is death. ]] who supported the enemy alliance from their own strongholds, and cast horror into their hearts. You ˹believers˺ killed some, and took others captive.
And He brought down those of the People of the Book who supported them from their fortresses, and cast horror into their hearts: you killed some and took others as captives.
And He brought down those of the People of the Book who supported them from their fortresses and cast terror in their hearts; some you slew, some you made captive.
He brought those People of the Book who supported them down from their strongholds and put panic into their hearts. Some of them you [believers] killed and some you took captive.
And He brought those of the people of the Book who backed them down from their fortresses and cast into their hearts terror; a part of them ye slew, and ye made captives a part.
And those of the People of the Book who aided them - Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts. (So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners.
Allah brought down from their fortresses those People of the Book who had supported the invading confederates and cast such terror into their hearts that some of them you kill and some of them you take captive.
He made those of the people of the Book who had helped (the tribes) descend from their forts, and filled their hearts with dread, so that you killed some and made many captive;
And He brought down from their forts, the People given the Book(s) who had supported them, and instilled awe into their hearts – you slay a group among them and another group you make captive.
And He dragged down from their strongholds those who had backed them from among the People of the Book, and He cast terror into their hearts, [so that] you killed a part of them, and took captive [another] part.
And He brought down from their strongholds those of the People of the Book who had supported them (the Confederates in their attack on Madinah), and cast fright in their hearts: some of them you killed, and others you took as prisoners of war.
And He brought down from their strongholds those of the people of the Scripture (- the Jews of Madînah, the perfidious Banû Quraizâh) who had backed them (-the invading enemies). He inspired awful terror into their hearts (so much so that) some of them you were able to slay and others you could take as captives.
And He descended those who cooperated/supported (against) them , from The Book`s people from their fortresses/strong holds , and He threw/hurled in their hearts/minds the terror/fright, a group/party you kill, and a group/party you capture/imprison.
And He brought down from their forts, the People given the Book(s) who had supported them, and instilled awe into their hearts - you slay a group among them and another group you make captive.
And Allah turned back the disbelievers in their rage; they did not obtain any advantage, and Allah sufficed the believers in their fight. Allah is Strong, Mighty.
And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives.
And Allah turned back the disbelievers in their rage -- they gained no advantage. And Allah sufficed the believers in fighting. And Allah is ever Strong, Mighty.
And He drove down those of the followers of the Book who backed them from their fortresses and He cast awe into their hearts; some you killed and you took captive another part.
And He brought those of the People of the Scripture who supported them down from their strongholds, and cast panic into their hearts. Some ye slew, and ye made captive some.
God brought down those among the People of the Book who had supported the confederate tribes from their castles and struck their hearts with terror. You did away with some of them and captured the others.
He brought down from their fortresses those who had supported them from among the People of the (Jewish) Book and cast terror into their hearts, so that some you killed and others you took captive.
And those of the People of the Scripture who backed them, Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts; a group you killed, and a group you made captives.
He brought down from their strongholds those People of the Book who supported the aggressors and filled their hearts with terror. Some of them you killed and others you took captive.
And He brought down from their strongholds those of the People of the Book who backed them, and He threw terror into their hearts. Some of them you killed, and others you took captive.
And He brought down those of the People of the Scripture, namely, the [Ban] Qurayza, who had supported them from their strongholds (says is the plural of ssa, and is that in which one fortifies himself [against an enemy]) and He cast terror into their hearts, [so that] some, of them, you slew, and these were the combatants, and some, of them, you took captive, namely, their children.
The Campaign against Banu Qurayzah
We have already noted that when the Confederates came and camped outside Al-Madinah, Banu Qurayzah broke the covenant that existed between them and the Messenger of Allah.
This happened by the agency of Huyay bin Akhtab An-Nadari, may Allah curse him, who entered their stronghold and would not leave their leader, Ka`b bin Asad, alone until he agreed to break the covenant. Among the things that he said to him was,
"Woe to you! This is the opportunity for glory. The Quraysh and their company of men from various tribes, and the Ghatafan and their followers, have come to you, and they will stay here until they eliminate Muhammad and his companions."
Ka`b said to him, "No, by Allah, this is the opportunity for humiliation. Woe to you, O Huyay, you are a bad omen. Leave us alone."
But Huyay kept trying to persuade him until he agreed to his request. He laid down the condition that if the Confederates went away without doing anything, he (Huyay) would join them in their stronghold and would share their fate.
When Banu Qurayzah broke their covenant and news of this reached the Messenger of Allah, he and the Muslims were very distressed by that.
When Allah helped him by suppressing his enemy and driving them back disappointed and lost, having gained nothing, the Messenger of Allah returned to Al-Madinah in triumph and the people put down their weapons. While the Messenger of Allah was washing off the dust of battle in the house of Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, Jibril, upon him be peace, came to him wearing a turban of brocade, riding on a mule on which was a cloth of silk brocade.
He said, "Have you put down your weapons, O Messenger of Allah!"
He said, "Yes."
He said, "But the angels have not put down their weapons. I have just now come back from pursuing the people."
Then he said;"Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, commands you to get up and go to Banu Qurayzah."
According to another report,
"What a fighter you are! Have you put down your weapons!"
He said, "Yes."
He said, "But we have not put down our weapons yet, get up and go to these people."
He said, "Banu Qurayzah, for Allah has commanded me to shake them."
So the Messenger of Allah got up immediately, and commanded the people to march towards Banu Qurayzah, who were a few miles from Al-Madinah. This was after Salat Az-Zuhr.
لَاا يُصَلِّيَنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمُ الْعَصْرَ إِلاَّاِفي بَنِي قُرَيْظَة
No one among you should pray `Asr except at Banu Qurayzah.
So, the people set out, and the time for the prayer came while they were still on the road. Some of them prayed on the road, saying,
"The Messenger of Allah only wanted to make us march quickly."
Others said, "We will not pray it until we reach Banu Qurayzah."
Neither of the two groups were rebuked for what they did.
The Messenger of Allah followed them. He left Ibn Umm Maktum, may Allah be pleased with him, in charge of Al-Madinah, and he had given the flag to Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him. Then the Messenger of Allah went to them (Banu Qurayzah) laying siege to them for twenty-five days.
When this had gone on for too long, they agreed to accept the judgement of Sa`d bin Mu`adh, the leader of `Aws because they had been their allies during the Jahiliyyah, so they thought that he would treat them kindly as Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul had done for his allies of Banu Qaynuqa,` when he had asked the Messenger of Allah to set them free. So, these people thought that Sa`d would do the same for them as Ibn Ubayy had done for those people.
They did not know that Sa`d had been struck by an arrow in his medial arm vein during the campaign of Al-Khandaq. The Messenger of Allah had had his vein cauterized and had brought him to stay in a tent in the Masjid so that he could keep a close eye on him. One of the things that Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his supplication was,
"O Allah, if there is still anything that has to do with the war against Quraysh, then keep me alive for it, and if You decree that the war between us and them is over, then let the bleeding be renewed, but do not let me die until I get my satisfaction with regard to Banu Qurayzah."
Allah answered his prayer and decreed that they would agree to be referred to him for judgement, and this was their own free choice. When this happened, the Messenger of Allah called him to come from Al-Madinah to pass judgement on them.
When he arrived, riding on a donkey that had been specially equipped for him to ride, some of the `Aws began to urge him not to be too harsh, saying,
"O Sa`d, they are your clients so be kind to them, trying to soften his heart."
But he kept quiet and did not answer them. When they persisted in their request, he said,
"Now it is time for Sa`d to make sure that no rebuke or censure will divert him from the path of Allah."
Then they knew that he would not let them live.
When he reached the tent where the Messenger of Allah was, the Messenger of Allah said;
قُومُوا إِلَى سَيِّدِكُم
(Stand up for your leader).
So the Muslims stood up for him, and welcomed him with honor and respect as befitted his status and so that his judgement would have more impact. When he sat down, the Messenger of Allah said;
إِنَّ هَوُلَاءِ وَأَشَارَ إِلَيْهِمْ قَدْ نَزَلُوا عَلَى حُكْمِكَ فَاحْكُمْ فِيهِمْ بِمَا شِيْت
These people -- (and he pointed to them) -- (have agreed to accept your judgement, so pass judgement on them as you wish.
Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said;"My judgement will be carried out"
The Messenger of Allah said;"Yes."
He said, "And it will be carried out on those who are in this tent."
He said, "Yes."
He said, "And on those who are on this side." -- and he pointed towards the side where the Messenger of Allah was, but he did not look directly at the Messenger of Allah out of respect for him.
The Messenger of Allah said to him;"Yes."
So Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, said;"My judgement is that their fighters should be killed and their children and wealth should be seized."
The Messenger of Allah said;
لَقَدْ حَكَمْتَ بِحُكْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى مِنْ فَوْقِ سَبْعِ أَرْقَعَة
You have judged according to the ruling of Allah from above the seven heavens.
According to another report;
لَقَدْ حَكَمْتَ بِحُكْمِ الْمَلِك
You have judged according to the ruling of the Sovereign.
Then the Messenger of Allah commanded that ditches should be dug, so they were dug in the earth, and they were brought tied by their shoulders, and were beheaded. There were between seven hundred and eight hundred of them. The children who had not yet reached adolescence and the women were taken prisoner, and their wealth was seized.
All of this is stated both briefly and in detail, with evidence and Hadiths, in the book of Sirah which we have written, praise and blessings be to Allah.
وَأَنزَلَ الَّذِينَ ظَاهَرُوهُم
And those who backed them, Allah brought them down,
means, those who helped and supported them in their war against the Messenger of Allah.
مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ
of the People of the Scripture,
means, Banu Qurayzah, who were Jews from one of the tribes of Israel. Their forefathers had settled in the Hijaz long ago, seeking to follow the Unlettered Prophet of whom they read in the Tawrah and Injil.
فَلَمَّا جَأءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُواْ كَفَرُواْ بِهِ
then when there came to them that which they had recognized, they disbelieved in it. (2;89)
May the curse of Allah be upon them.
from their forts,
means, from their strongholds.
This was the view of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata', Qatadah, As-Suddi and others of the Salaf.
وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ
and cast terror into their hearts;
means fear, because they had supported the idolators in their war against the Messenger of Allah and the one who knows is not like the one who does not know. They had terrified the Muslims and intended to kill them so as to gain earthly power, but their plans backfired; the idolators ran away and the believers were victorious while the disbelievers were losers; where they had aimed for glory, they were humiliated. They wanted to eradicate the Muslims but they were themselves eradicated. In addition to all this, they are doomed in the Hereafter, so by all accounts they are counted as losers.
فَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ وَتَأْسِرُونَ فَرِيقًا
a group you killed, and a group you made captives.
Those who were killed were their warriors, and the prisoners were their children and women.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Atiyah Al-Qurazi said,
"I was shown to the Prophet on the day of Qurayzah, because they were not sure about me. The Prophet told them to look at me to see whether I had grown any body hair yet. They looked and saw that I had not grown any body hair, so they let me go and I was put with the other prisoners."
This was also recorded by the Sunan compilers, and At-Tirmidhi said it is Hasan Sahih."
An-Nasa'i also recorded something similar from Atiyah.
And Allah says